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The prospects for basic change in the system a deemphasis on tests - were unlikely in the late - 1980s allergy treatment brand discount cyproheptadine 4 mg mastercard. The use of nonobjective criteria such as essays allergy medicine zyrtec vs claritin generic 4mg cyproheptadine with amex, personal recommendations, and the recognition of success in extracurricular activities or personal recommendations from teachers and others could open up all sorts of opportunities for corruption. In a society where social connections are extremely important, connections rather than merit might determine entry into a good university. Students who survive the numbing regimen of examinations under the modern system are at least universally acknowledged to have deserved their educational success. Top graduates who have assumed positions of responsibility in government and business have lent, through their talents, legitimacy to the whole system. Following the assumption of power by General in 1980, the Ministry of Education Chun Doo Hwan implemented a number of reforms designed to make the system fairer and to increase higher education opportunities for the population at large. The number of high school graduates accepted into colleges and universities was increased from almost 403,000 students in 1980 to more than 1. This reform decreased, temporarily, the acceptance ratio from one college place for every four applicants in 1980 to one for every three applicants in 1981 In 1980. By 1987 junior of students attending all number leges had an enrollment of almost 260,000 students, and coland universities had an enrollment of almost 990,000 students. Formerly, private tutors could charge exorbitant rates if they had a good "track record" of getting students into the right schools through intensive coaching, especially in English and in mathematics. Under the new rules, students receiving tutoring 120 the Society and Its Environment could be suspended from school and their tutors dismissed from There was ample evidence in the mid-1980s, however, that the law had simply driven the private tutoring system underground and made the fees more expensive. Students and their parents took the risk of being caught, believing that coaching in weak subject areas could give students the edge needed to get into a better university. By the late 1980s, however, the tutorial system seemed largely to have to disappeared. The ministry established a graduation quota system, in which increased freshman enrollments were counterbalanced by the requirement that each four- A year college or university fail the lowest 30 percent of its students; junior colleges were required to fail the lowest 15 percent. These quotas were required no matter how well the lowest 30 or 15 percent of the students did in terms of objective standards. Ostensibly designed to ensure the quality of the increased number of college graduates, the system also served, for a while to discourage students from devoting their time to political movements. Resentment of the quotas was widespread, and family counterpressures were intense. College Student Activism Student activism has a long and honorable history in Korea. StuChoson Dynasty secondary schools often became involved dents in in the intense factional struggles of the scholar-official class. Students protested against the Rhee and Park regimes during the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Observers noted, however, that while student activists in the past generally embraced liberal and democratic values, the new generation of militants in the 1980s was far more radical. Most participants have adopted some version of the minjung ideology that was heavily influenced by Marxism, Western "dependence theory," and Christian "liberation theology," but was also animated by strong feelings of popular nationalism and xenophobia. The most militant university students, perhaps about 5 percent of the total enrollment at Seoul National University and comparable numbers at other institutions in the capital during the late 1980s, were organized into small circles or cells rarely containing more than fifty members. Police estimated that there were seventy-two 121 South Korea: A Country Study such organizations of varying orientation (see Political Extremism and Political Violence, ch. Religion Religious Traditions Shamanism Koreans, like other East Asians, have traditionally been eclectic rather than exclusive in their religious commitments. Their religious outlook has not been conditioned by a single, exclusive faith but by a combination of indigenous beliefs and creeds imported into Korea. Belief in a world inhabited by spirits is probably the oldest form of Korean religious life, dating back to prehistoric times. There is a rather unorganized pantheon of literally millions of gods, spirits, and ghosts, ranging from the "god generals" who rule the different quarters of heaven to mountain spirits (sansiri). This pantheon also includes gods who inhabit trees, sacred caves, and piles of stones, as well as earth spirits, the tutelary gods of households and villages, mischievous goblins, and the ghosts of persons who in many cases met violent or tragic ends. These spirits are said to have the power to influence or to change the fortunes of living men and women. They also resemble the yuta found on the Ryukyu Islands, in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.
There have been a number of common problems and issues in the training missions undertaken by U allergy testing boise order 4 mg cyproheptadine amex. Governments must properly balance national resources to meet the expectations of the people allergy medicine nightmares purchase cyproheptadine 4mg without prescription. Funding for services, education, and health care can limit resources available for security forces. Undeveloped countries generally lack the resources to maintain logistic units, resulting in chronic sustainment problems. Recognizing the interrelationship of security and governance, the central government must also ensure adequate resources are devoted to meeting such basic needs as health care, clean water, and electricity. In some cases, leaders enforce the obedience of their subordinates by pure fear and use their position to exploit them. Positions of power can also lead to corruption, which can also be affected by local culture. Cultural and ethnic differences within a population may lead to significant discrimination within the security forces and by the security forces against minority groups. In more ideological struggles, the prejudicial treatment may be manifested against personnel of other political parties, whether in a minority cultural group or not. Security forces that abuse civilians do not win the trust and confidence of the population. A program of comprehensive security force development requires identifying and addressing biases along with improper or corrupt practices. The typical American bias of, "The American way is best," must be recognized as unhelpful and continuously addressed. While the American relationship between police, customs, and the military works for the United States, it usually does not work for other nations that have developed differently. Partner nations may develop joint training teams or assign teams to a specific element of the security force or a particular specialty. Training resources may be received from the following organizations and programs: Special Operations Forces 6-13. Those personnel normally come from the active-duty force, but large-scale efforts require assigning Reserve Component personnel to the training and advisory mission as well. Adequate prior training, both predeployment and in-theater, is required for all land forces assigned this highpriority mission. Although other Services normally play smaller roles, they can still make significant contributions because of their considerable experience in training their counterparts. The Coast Guard may also be of value, as its coastal patrol, fisheries oversight, and port security missions are in keeping with the responsibilities of navies in developing countries. The quick-reaction capability of these agencies is limited, although they can attain necessary levels when given adequate time. During intensive counterinsurgencies, the effectiveness of civilian police advisers and trainers may be limited by the high-threat nature of the environment. There are many legal restrictions about training nonmilitary forces, and the State Department normally has the lead in such efforts However, there have been occasions when military forces were assigned that mission by the President. Each international contribution is assessed on its own merits, but decisions to decline such assistance are rarely made. Good faith efforts to integrate multinational partners and achieve optimum effectiveness are required. In some cases, additional training support is contracted to enable uniformed forces to be more efficiently utilized. That task must then be an integral part of all assessments, planning, coordination, and preparation. As planning unfolds, mission requirements should drive the initial organization for the unit charged with developing security forces. To achieve unity of effort, a single organization should be given this responsibility. If only a single component (ground, naval, air) or special forces is being developed, a Servicespecific organization could be designated. For large, multi-Service, long-duration missions, a separate organization with the sole responsibility of developing security forces and subordinate to the joint force commander may be required. The internal structure of the organization charged with developing security forces must reflect the desired end state of those security forces.
The following rules must be carefully observed: (a) See that the proof is clean and clear; request another if necessary allergy medicine not working order cyproheptadine 4 mg free shipping. General Instructions 21 (c) Make sure that different sets of proofs of the same job are correctly marked in series ("R allergy testing marietta ga order 4mg cyproheptadine with amex," "2R," "3R," etc. It is imperative that footnotes appear or begin on the same page as their reference, unless style dictates that all footnotes are to appear together in one location. If a footnote is added in proof, use the preceding number with a superior letter added, as 15a. If a table (with or without footnotes) ends a page that has footnotes to the text, the text footnotes fall at the bottom of the page, with a 50-point rule above them. The press reviser must be thoroughly familiar with the style and makeup of Government publications. Knowledge of the bindery operations required to complete a book or job and familiarity with all types of imposition, folds, etc. The reviser must be capable of ascertaining the proper head, back, and side margins for all work, to ensure proper trimming of the completed job. Although speed is essential when forms reach the press reviser, accuracy is still paramount and must not be sacrificed. Unless otherwise indicated, signature marks are set in 6-point lowercase and indented 3 ems. When the allmark and signature or the imprint and signature appear on same page, the signature line is placed below the allmark or imprint. Imprints and signature lines appearing on short pages of text are placed at the bottom of the page. The following forms are used for signature marks in House and Senate documents and reports printed on session jackets: H. In a document or report printed on other than a session jacket, use the jacket number, year, and signature number only, omitting the document or report number. On a paster or foldout facing an even page, the marks are placed on the lower right-hand side; on a paster or foldout facing an odd page, the marks are placed on the lower left-hand side. When a paster or foldout follows the text, the allmark is placed on the last page of the text and never on the paster or foldout. The imprint and allmark are not used together on any page; if one is used, the other is omitted. The imprint is not used on a halftitle or on any page of a cover, with the exception of congressional hearings. If there is a title page, the imprint is placed on the title page; but if there is no title page, or if the title page is entirely an illustration, the imprint is placed on the last page of the text 4 ems from flush right and below the bottom folio. If it is printed on page ii, the full imprint is used on the title page; if it is printed on the title page, use the half imprint only, thus-Washington: 2016. In the event that a title page is not used, the imprint is printed on the last page and positioned flush left below the text. To aid bibliographic identification of reprints or revisions, the dates of the original edition and of reprint or revision should be supplied by the author on the title page or in some other suitable place. Thus: First edition July 2000 Reprinted July 2005 First printed June 2000 Revised June 2005 2. Original edition May 2000 Reprinted May 2005 Revised July 2007 the year in the imprint on cover, title page, or elsewhere is not changed from that in the original print, nor are the signatures changed, unless other revisions are necessary. Unless otherwise indicated, if there is a title page, with or without a cover, the sales notice is printed at the bottom of the title page below a cross rule. If there is no cover or title page, any sales notice is printed at the end of the text, below the imprint, and the two are separated by a cross rule.
There is no dedifferentiation of myocytes into myoblasts (answer b) allergy shots san jose buy cheap cyproheptadine 4 mg online, or fusion of damaged myofibers to form new myotubes (answer c) allergy treatment vitamin c purchase 4 mg cyproheptadine otc. Hypertrophy, not hyperplasia (answer d), occurs in existing myofibers in response to increased load. Proliferation of fibroblasts may occur in the damaged area but leads to fibrosis, not repair of skeletal muscle. In the development of skeletal muscle, myoblasts of mesodermal origin undergo cell proliferation. Myoblasts, which are mononucleate cells, fuse with each other end to end to form myotubes. This process requires cell recognition between myoblasts, alignment, and subsequent fusion. However, as the degree of overlap of thick and thin filaments is altered, the thin filaments, which form the I band and are anchored to the Z line, are pulled toward the center of the sarcomere. As this occurs, the I band decreases in length and the H band is no longer visible. The filaments themselves do not decrease in length; they slide past one another in the sliding-filament model of muscle contraction. If there is a 20% contraction of the muscle (contraction to 80% of its length), then the sarcomere is reduced in length from 2. The size of the A band 221 222 Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology remains unchanged. The processes of skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation are shown in the image below and in the "High Yield Facts" section, p. The I bands are not shown completely on the figure (see High-Yield Facts) because they are found between adjacent A bands. Ca2+ ions continue to leak from the extracellular fluid and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (answer a), however, the sarcoplasmic reticulum is no longer able to retrieve the Ca2+ ions (answer b). The high levels of lactic acid cause deterioration of the skeletal muscle and end the state of rigor mortis (answer e). When Ca2+ in the muscle cell cytoplasm is high, the Ca2+ binds to the troponin complex. The binding of Ca2+ to the troponin complex results in a conformational change in the complex, thereby allowing myosin to interact with actin. The troponin complex subsequently reverts to the conformational state in which the troponin complex blocks the interaction of myosin with actin (answer b). Glycogen is stored as particles or droplets in the cytoplasm, which contains the enzymes required for the synthesis and breakdown of glycogen (answer c). The transverse tubule system, or T system, is an extension of the plasma membrane of the myofiber (sarcolemma). The T system allows for simultaneous contraction of all myofibrils since it encircles the A-I bands in each sarcomere of every myofibril. In combination with the paired terminal cisternae, the transverse tubules form a triad. Two triads are found in each sarcomere of skeletal muscle-one at each junction of dark (A) and light (I) bands. Depolarization of the T system during contraction is transmitted to the sarcoplasmic reticulum at the triad (answers d and e). It is important to note that cardiac muscle also has a T system, although it is not as elaborate and well organized as that found in skeletal muscle. The deductive process is based on the fact that the sample must be skeletal or cardiac muscle due to the presence of cross-striations (answer e). The presence of peripherally placed nuclei eliminates cardiac muscle as a possibility (answer d). Skeletal muscle may be subclassified into three muscle fiber types: red, white, and 224 Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology intermediate fibers. Red muscle fibers have a high content of cytochrome and myoglobin and, beneath the plasmalemma, contain many mitochondria required for the high metabolism of these cells. The presence of numerous mitochondria provides a strong staining reaction with the use of cytochemical stains such as that for succinic dehydrogenase. The term "red (type I) fibers" is due to the presence of large concentrations of myoglobin, the colored oxygen-binding protein. White fibers are capable of rapid contraction but are unable to sustain continuous heavy work.
A more comprehensive account of social values might describe them in terms of interacting dualities allergy medicine overdose generic 4mg cyproheptadine with visa, a kind of yin-yang opposition and synthesis allergy testing wilmington nc order cyproheptadine 4 mg with mastercard. There is the tension, for example, between self-control and - 90 the Society and Its Environment level of individual behavior, solemnity, on the one hand, and almost explosive volatility at the on the other; between the duty-bound austerity of Confucian family life and ritualism, and the ecstasy and abandon of shamanistic rites; between the conservatism of agricultural villages and the looser social organization of fishing communities; between the orthodox concept of male supremacy and the reality of much "hidden" female power; between the "higher" rationalized, humanistic, or scientific culture imported from China, Japan, or the West, and much older indigenous or native cultural themes; between hierarchy and equality; and between slavish deference to authority and principled resistance. To ensure stability, the government devised a system of personal tallies ban; the chungin (literally ministrators subordinate to theyangban; the sangmin, or in order to identify people according to their status. In the officials strictest sense of the term, yangban referred to government who had passed the civil service examinaknowledge of the Confucian classics and their neoConfucian interpreters. They were the Korean counterparts of the scholar-officials, or mandarins, of imperial China. The termyangban, first used during the Koryo Dynasty, means literally "two groups," that is, civil and military officials. Over the centuries, however, its usage became rather vague, so that the term can be said to have several overlapping meanings. Strictly speaking, ayangban lineage was one that consistently combined examination success with appointments to government office over a period of some generations. During the Choson period, examination candidates had to show several generations of such ancestry on both sides to be admitted to the civil service examinations. A broader use of the term included within the yangban two other groups that could be considered associated with, but outside of, the ruling elite. The first group included those scholars who had passed the preliminary civil service examination and sometimes the higher examinations but had failed to secure government appointment. In the late Choson Dynasty, there were many more successful examination candidates than there were positions. The second group included the more remote relatives and descendants of government officials. Even if these people were poor and did not themselves serve in the or officeholders tions that tested 91 South Korea: A Country Study government, they were considered members of a "yangban family" and thus shared the aura of the elite as long as they retained Confucian culture and rituals. An interesting development in the social history of the Choson Dynasty occurred after the government began to sell honorary patents of office to people who were not yangban to raise revenue following the dislocations of the Hideyoshi invasions. Wealthy commoners sometimes went beyond such status symbols to commission forged genealogies or to take on other trappings of yangban status. This form of social climbing was highly irritating to traditional yangban families of the types mentioned above. Probably even more common were former yangban families that had drifted down into genteel poverty and commoner status. Both developments show that the Choson Dynasty class system was beginning to lose some of its rigidity on the eve of the momentous changes of the late nineteenth century. Yangban serving as officials could enrich were given royal grants of land and had graft; but unemployed scholars and local They were a kind of "twilight elite" that often mocked in peasant entertainments. A yangban could not, among other things, "poke and play with his chopsticks," "eat raw onions, or "puff hard on his pipe, pulling in his cheeks. Certain groups of persons merchants, shamans, slaves, Buddhist monks, and others) were prohibited from taking the higher civil service examinations, but these formed only a small minority of the population. In theory, the examinations were open to the large majority of people who were farmers. In the early years of the Choson Dynasty, some commoners may have been able to attain high positions by passing the examinations and advancing on sheer talent. In later years, talent was a necessary but not sufficient prerequisite for entry into the core elite because of the surplus of successful examinees. Influential family connections were virtually indispensable for obtaining high official positions. Moreover, special posts called "protection appointments" were inherited by descendants of the sitions (artisans, 92 the Society and Its Environment Choson royal family and certain high officials. Despite the emphasis on educational merit, the yangban became in a very real sense a hereditary elite. Below theyangban yet superior to the commoners were the chungin, a small group of technical and administrative officials. They included astronomers, physicians, interpreters, and professional military officers, as well as artists.
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